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Category: Opera

download Breakaway - Digression - Controlled (Vinyl) full album

1996

The present invention further provides a breakaway bezel that is designed to have a decreased amount of force necessary to release the bridge bezel from the surround bezel, so as not to impede the car-forward movement of the steering column during a collision event. When the bridge bezel 20 is connected to the surround bezel 12as shown in FIG. FR-4 glass epoxy is the most common insulating substrate. Find sources: Donald Vitalogy Expanded Edition 3 Bonus Tracks.

The gap concealing material disposed between upper shroud 24 and bridge bezel assembly 20 is indicated as reference numeral 29 in FIG. The gap concealing material 29 is comprised of a flexible material, such as vinyl or cloth. The gap concealing material 29 is connected at a first end to the underside 38 of the bridge bezel assembly 20 in a permanent fashion, such as by heat staked pins, which permanently couple the gap concealing material 29 to the bridge bezel assembly The gap concealing material is further coupled to the upper shroud 24 at a second end in a similar permanent fashion.

In this way, the gap concealing material acts as a tether to the bridge bezel assembly 20 when it is released from the surround bezel With the gap concealing material 29 in place operably coupling the bridge bezel 20 to the upper shroud 24 in a flexible manner, the bridge bezel assembly 20 will not be free to move as a projectile in the vehicle interior when released from the surround bezel 12 during a collision event.

The overall length and flexibility of the gap concealing material 29 ensures that the material will not impede the release of the bridge bezel assembly 20 from the surround bezel 12 during car-forward travel of the steering column during a collision event. It is contemplated that the sides 30 , 32 FIG.

For instance, the car-forward and car-rearward clips can both be molded-in clips, such as clips 44 shown in FIG. Also, the car-forward and car-rearward clips can be one-sided dual ramped fastener release clips, such as clips 46 shown in FIG.

Further, the position of clips 44 and 46 , as shown in FIG. In this way, the bridge bezel assembly 20 can be customized to control the direction and other characteristics of the release of the bridge bezel 20 from the surround bezel 12 given the differences in breakaway force required to release clips 46 as compared to clips In a preferred embodiment shown in FIG.

Again, as noted above, the rotation R FIG. The vertical movement V FIG. The cluster finish panel 10 of the present invention provides a unique bridge bezel design, which provides a proper fit and finish for vehicle interiors while also providing a tunable and controlled release action to breakaway the bridge bezel during the advancement of a steering column caused by forward impact load being imparted on the steering column by a vehicle occupant or by deployment of an airbag due to a collision event.

The controlled and tunable release of the bridge bezel assembly 20 is achieved through a unique combination of the car-rearward positioned molded-in clips 44 FIG. The tunable feature in the design is realized due to the car-rearward molded-in clips 44 allowing for the bridge bezel 20 to release at a lower breakaway force or controlled force during the rotation R of the bridge bezel assembly Thus, the full breakaway force necessary to release the bridge bezel 20 from the surround bezel 12 is minimized as the steering column advances in a car-forward direction of travel to a full forward position during a collision event.

It is to be understood that variations and modifications can be made on the aforementioned structure without departing from the concepts of the present invention, and further it is to be understood that such concepts are intended to be covered by the following claims unless these claims by their language expressly state otherwise. We claim: A cluster panel assembly comprising: The cluster panel assembly of claim 1 , wherein: The cluster panel assembly of claim 2 , including: The cluster panel assembly of claim 3 , wherein: The cluster panel assembly of claim 1 , including: The cluster panel assembly of claim 9 , including: The cluster panel assembly of claim 10 , including: The cluster panel assembly of claim 11 , wherein: The cluster panel assembly of claim 15 , wherein: The cluster panel assembly of claim 16 , including: The cluster panel assembly of claim 17 , wherein: The cluster panel assembly of claim 18 , wherein: The cluster panel assembly of claim 19 , wherein: Cluster finish panel with unique controlled release breakaway bridge bezel design.

DE DEU1 en Cluster panel assembly with bridge mount construction for unique controlled release fraction. CN CNU en USB2 en. CNU en. DEU1 en. USB1 en. USA en. Energy absorbing steering column assembly having a passive restraint load limiting support system. JPHA en. DEC1 en. CAA1 en. Instrument panel having flexible steering wheel column closeout and method for assembling same. Street Release Date: Would you like to tell us about a lower price?

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Have one to sell? Sell on Amazon. Image Unavailable Image not available for Color: Pearl Jam Format: Audio CD. See all 10 formats and editions Hide other formats and editions Price. Audio CD, Import, October 19, —. Vinyl, Import, June 9, "Please retry".

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Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Pearl Jam. Vitalogy Expanded Edition 3 Bonus Tracks. Alice In Chains. In Utero. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Vinyl Edition Remastered.

Expanded Edition 3 Bonus Tracks. Vitalogy Vinyl Edition Remastered. The etching is usually done using photoresist which is coated onto the PCB, then exposed to light projected in the pattern of the artwork. The resist material protects the copper from dissolution into the etching solution. The etched board is then cleaned. A PCB design can be mass-reproduced in a way similar to the way photographs can be mass-duplicated from film negatives using a photographic printer.

In multi-layer boards, the layers of material are laminated together in an alternating sandwich: Only the outer layers need be coated; the inner copper layers are protected by the adjacent substrate layers. FR-4 glass epoxy is the most common insulating substrate. Another substrate material is cotton paper impregnated with phenolic resin, often tan or brown. When a PCB has no components installed, it is less ambiguously called a printed wiring board PWB or etched wiring board.

However, the term "printed wiring board" has fallen into disuse. In informal usage, the term "printed circuit board" most commonly means "printed circuit assembly" with components. The IPC preferred term for assembled boards is circuit card assembly CCA , [14] and for assembled backplanes it is backplane assemblies. A PCB may be "silkscreen" printed with a legend identifying the components, test points, or identifying text.

Originally, an actual silkscreen printing process was used for this purpose, but today other, finer quality printing methods are usually used instead. Normally the screen printing is not significant to the function of the PCBA. A minimal PCB for a single component, used for prototyping, is called a breakout board.

The purpose of a breakout board is to "break out" the leads of a component on separate terminals so that manual connections to them can be made easily.

Breakout boards are especially used for surface-mount components or any components with fine lead pitch. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate. The first PCBs used through-hole technology, mounting electronic components by leads inserted through holes on one side of the board and soldered onto copper traces on the other side. Boards may be single-sided, with an unplated component side, or more compact double-sided boards, with components soldered on both sides.

Leads may be soldered either manually or by a wave soldering machine. Through-hole manufacture adds to board cost by requiring many holes to be drilled accurately, and it limits the available routing area for signal traces on layers immediately below the top layer on multi-layer boards, since the holes must pass through all layers to the opposite side.

Once surface-mounting came into use, small-sized SMD components were used where possible, with through-hole mounting only of components unsuitably large for surface-mounting due to power requirements or mechanical limitations, or subject to mechanical stress which might damage the PCB e. Through-hole devices mounted on the circuit board of a mids Commodore 64 home computer.

A box of drill bits used for making holes in printed circuit boards. While tungsten-carbide bits are very hard, they eventually wear out or break. Drilling is a considerable part of the cost of a through-hole printed circuit board.

Surface-mount technology emerged in the s, gained momentum in the early s and became widely used by the mids. Components were mechanically redesigned to have small metal tabs or end caps that could be soldered directly onto the PCB surface, instead of wire leads to pass through holes.

Components became much smaller and component placement on both sides of the board became more common than with through-hole mounting, allowing much smaller PCB assemblies with much higher circuit densities. Surface mounting lends itself well to a high degree of automation, reducing labor costs and greatly increasing production rates. Components can be supplied mounted on carrier tapes.

Surface mount components can be about one-quarter to one-tenth of the size and weight of through-hole components, and passive components much cheaper. However, prices of semiconductor surface mount devices SMDs are determined more by the chip itself than the package, with little price advantage over larger packages, and some wire-ended components, such as 1N small-signal switch diodes, are actually significantly cheaper than SMD equivalents.

Each trace consists of a flat, narrow part of the copper foil that remains after etching. Its resistance , determined by its width, thickness, and length, must be sufficiently low for the current the conductor will carry. Power and ground traces may need to be wider than signal traces. In a multi-layer board one entire layer may be mostly solid copper to act as a ground plane for shielding and power return. For microwave circuits, transmission lines can be laid out in a planar form such as stripline or microstrip with carefully controlled dimensions to assure a consistent impedance.

In radio-frequency and fast switching circuits the inductance and capacitance of the printed circuit board conductors become significant circuit elements, usually undesired; conversely, they can be used as a deliberate part of the circuit design, as in distributed element filters , obviating the need for additional discrete components.

The European Union bans the use of lead among other heavy metals in consumer items, a piece of legislature called the RoHS , for Restriction of Hazardous Substances, directive.

PCBs to be sold in the EU must be RoHS-compliant, meaning that all manufacturing processes must not involve the use of lead, all solder used must be lead-free, and all components mounted on the board must be free of lead, mercury, cadmium, and other heavy metals. Laminates are manufactured by curing under pressure and temperature layers of cloth or paper with thermoset resin to form an integral final piece of uniform thickness.

The size can be up to 4 by 8 feet 1. Varying cloth weaves threads per inch or cm , cloth thickness, and resin percentage are used to achieve the desired final thickness and dielectric characteristics.

There are quite a few different dielectrics that can be chosen to provide different insulating values depending on the requirements of the circuit. Thermal expansion is an important consideration especially with ball grid array BGA and naked die technologies, and glass fiber offers the best dimensional stability.

FR-4 is by far the most common material used today. The board stock with unetched copper on it is called "copper-clad laminate".

With decreasing size of board features and increasing frequencies, small nonhomogeneities like uneven distribution of fiberglass or other filler, thickness variations, and bubbles in the resin matrix, and the associated local variations in the dielectric constant, are gaining importance. The circuitboard substrates are usually dielectric composite materials. The composites contain a matrix usually an epoxy resin and a reinforcement usually a woven, sometimes nonwoven, glass fibers, sometimes even paper , and in some cases a filler is added to the resin e.

The reinforcement type defines two major classes of materials: Woven reinforcements are cheaper, but the high dielectric constant of glass may not be favorable for many higher-frequency applications. The substrates are characterized by several key parameters, chiefly thermomechanical glass transition temperature , tensile strength , shear strength , thermal expansion , electrical dielectric constant , loss tangent , dielectric breakdown voltage , leakage current , tracking resistance At the glass transition temperature the resin in the composite softens and significantly increases thermal expansion; exceeding T g then exerts mechanical overload on the board components - e.

Below T g the thermal expansion of the resin roughly matches copper and glass, above it gets significantly higher. As the reinforcement and copper confine the board along the plane, virtually all volume expansion projects to the thickness and stresses the plated-through holes. Repeated soldering or other exposition to higher temperatures can cause failure of the plating, especially with thicker boards; thick boards therefore require a matrix with a high T g.

This constant is also dependent on frequency, usually decreasing with frequency. As this constant determines the signal propagation speed , frequency dependence introduces phase distortion in wideband applications; as flat a dielectric constant vs frequency characteristics as is achievable is important here. The impedance of transmission lines decreases with frequency, therefore faster edges of signals reflect more than slower ones.

Dielectric breakdown voltage determines the maximum voltage gradient the material can be subjected to before suffering a breakdown conduction, or arcing, through the dielectric. Tracking resistance determines how the material resists high voltage electrical discharges creeping over the board surface. Loss tangent determines how much of the electromagnetic energy from the signals in the conductors is absorbed in the board material. This factor is important for high frequencies.

Low-loss materials are more expensive. Choosing unnecessarily low-loss material is a common engineering error in high-frequency digital design; it increases the cost of the boards without a corresponding benefit.

Signal degradation by loss tangent and dielectric constant can be easily assessed by an eye pattern. Moisture absorption occurs when the material is exposed to high humidity or water.

Both the resin and the reinforcement may absorb water; water also may be soaked by capillary forces through voids in the materials and along the reinforcement.

Teflon has very low absorption of 0. Polyimides and cyanate esters, on the other side, suffer from high water absorption. Absorbed water can lead to significant degradation of key parameters; it impairs tracking resistance, breakdown voltage, and dielectric parameters. Relative dielectric constant of water is about 73, compared to about 4 for common circuit board materials. Absorbed moisture can also vaporize on heating, as during soldering, and cause cracking and delamination, [19] the same effect responsible for "popcorning" damage on wet packaging of electronic parts.

Careful baking of the substrates may be required to dry them prior to soldering. Copper thickness of PCBs can be specified directly or as the weight of copper per area in ounce per square foot which is easier to measure. One ounce per square foot is 1. Heavy copper is a layer exceeding three ounces of copper per ft 2 , or approximately 0.

Heavy copper layers are used for high current or to help dissipate heat. Flexible substrates typically have thinner metalization. Safety Standard UL covers component safety requirements for printed wiring boards for use as components in devices or appliances. Testing analyzes characteristics such as flammability, maximum operating temperature , electrical tracking, heat deflection, and direct support of live electrical parts.

Initially PCBs were designed manually by creating a photomask on a clear mylar sheet, usually at two or four times the true size. Starting from the schematic diagram the component pin pads were laid out on the mylar and then traces were routed to connect the pads. Rub-on dry transfers of common component footprints increased efficiency.

Traces were made with self-adhesive tape. Pre-printed non-reproducing grids on the mylar assisted in layout. The finished photomask was photolithographically reproduced onto a photoresist coating on the blank copper-clad boards. Modern PCBs are designed with dedicated layout software, generally in the following steps: Manufacturing starts from the fabrication data generated by computer aided design , and component information.

CAM performs the following functions:. Several small printed circuit boards can be grouped together for processing as a panel. A panel consisting of a design duplicated n -times is also called an n -panel, whereas a multi-panel combines several different design onto a single panel. The outer tooling strip often includes tooling holes , a set of panel fiducials , a test coupon , and may include hatched copper pour or similar patterns for even copper distribution over the whole panel in order to avoid bending.

The assemblers often mount components on panels rather than single PCBs because this is efficient. The panel is eventually broken into individual PCBs along perforations or grooves in the panel. Laser depaneling reduces stress on the fragile circuits, improving the yield of defect-free units. Subsequent etching removes the unwanted copper. Alternatively, a conductive ink can be ink-jetted on a blank non-conductive board.

This technique is also used in the manufacture of hybrid circuits. Subtractive methods remove copper from an entirely copper-coated board to leave only the desired copper pattern. In additive methods the pattern is electroplated onto a bare substrate using a complex process. The advantage of the additive method is that less material is needed and less waste is produced.

In the full additive process the bare laminate is covered with a photosensitive film which is imaged exposed to light through a mask and then developed which removes the unexposed film.

The exposed areas are sensitized in a chemical bath, usually containing palladium and similar to that used for through hole plating which makes the exposed area capable of bonding metal ions. The laminate is then plated with copper in the sensitized areas. When the mask is stripped, the PCB is finished. Semi-additive is the most common process: The unpatterned board has a thin layer of copper already on it.

A reverse mask is then applied. Unlike a subtractive process mask, this mask exposes those parts of the substrate that will eventually become the traces. Additional copper is then plated onto the board in the unmasked areas; copper may be plated to any desired weight. Tin-lead or other surface platings are then applied.

The mask is stripped away and a brief etching step removes the now-exposed bare original copper laminate from the board, isolating the individual traces. Some single-sided boards which have plated-through holes are made in this way. General Electric made consumer radio sets in the late s using additive boards.

The semi- additive process is commonly used for multi-layer boards as it facilitates the plating -through of the holes to produce conductive vias in the circuit board. Chemical etching is usually done with ammonium persulfate or ferric chloride. The simplest method, used for small-scale production and often by hobbyists, is immersion etching, in which the board is submerged in etching solution such as ferric chloride. Compared with methods used for mass production, the etching time is long.

Heat and agitation can be applied to the bath to speed the etching rate. In bubble etching, air is passed through the etchant bath to agitate the solution and speed up etching.

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